Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr., ONH , was a Jamaican political leader, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, and orator who was a proponent of the PanAfricanism movement, to which end he founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League . He also founded the Black Star Line, a shipping and passenger line which promoted the return of the African diaspora to their ancestral lands.
Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. was born as the youngest of eleven children in St. Anns Bay, Jamaica, to Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Sr., a mason, and Sarah Jane Richards, a domestic worker. Only his sister Indiana along with Marcus survived to adulthood. His family was financially stable given the circumstances of this time period. Garveys father had a large library, and it was from his father that Marcus gained his love for reading. He also attended elementary schools in St. Anns Bay during his youth. While attending these schools, Garvey first began to experience racism. In 1907, he took part in an unsuccessful printers strike and the experience kindled in him a passion for political activism. In 1910 Garvey left Jamaica and began traveling throughout the Central American region. His first stop was Costa Rica, where he had a maternal uncle. He lived in Costa Rica for several months and worked as a time keeper on a banana plantation. He began work as editor for a daily newspaper called La Nacion